The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is located between Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and despite its small size, has always played an important role in the political developments of the West Asia. (Map quoted from Yahoo’s image)


In fact, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is in a critical and decisive position in terms of its geopolitical position and is seriously involved in the Palestinian issue.


Perhaps the most important element and feature of Jordan's foreign policy (which became more prominent after the 1994 peace agreement with Israel) was its association with the West. 


At the same time, geographical and geopolitical structure, the kingdom has always tried to avoid confrontation with other countries while pursuing conservative policies. 


Although Jordan is a Muslim and Arab country, it avoids ideological practices, using almost liberal approaches. In general, it could be said that Jordan's foreign policy is conservative and more pursuing economic interests. Jordan has been known for adopting a pragmatic foreign policy and avoiding conflict, and as a result, it has always had good foreign relations with neighboring countries.


In its foreign policy, Jordan has faced three major and influential variables that have had a special impact on the country's orientations in three different areas: geography, economy and demographic context.


On the one hand, having a population of nearly 8 million, Jordan is a lowland, desert, arid, rainy land, with poor mineral resources. In terms of security, it is vulnerable. Therefore, in the field of foreign policy, this country seeks good relations with Israel.


Also, because of the danger of spreading the domino effect of the neighbors' crisis, the country has adopted a conservative approach. Likewise, Jordan's foreign relations are vital to the monarchy's internal stability, because it addresses its regional and external security.


On the other hand, the scarcity of underground resources and the lack of advanced industries have led the Jordanian economy to be dependent on financial and military aid from its international and regional allies. 


This has led to the presence of these countries in Jordan's foreign policy. Jordan is dependent on foreign support and assistance and generally seeks to find economic aspects in its foreign relations.


In addition, Jordan has high political, demographic, and even economic ties to Palestine due to its Palestinian population composition, (half of which is Palestinian). Any in Palestine could have a direct impact on the politics and economy of this country.


Jordan's priorities related to Palestine are to strike a balance between the Palestinians and Israel so as not to create security problems for Jordan. This is why in the Palestinian crisis, no problem can be solved in the lack of Jordan’s presence, and the relations between Jordan and Israel are greatly affected by the developments in the Palestine cause. 


That was why King Abdullah repeatedly emphasized his opposition to the Trump administration's Plan of the ‘Deal of the Century’. Meanwhile, the Islamist opposition movement in Jordan and the domestic opposition do not like Jordan's approach to Israel.


What is clear is that Jordan's inclusion in the list of small states has placed restrictions on its foreign policy. But on the whole, Jordan has tried to avoid serious tensions by avoiding tensions while securing its interests in the Asian environment and the international system. 

The most important priority of the government is security and internal stability, and Jordan does not seem to portray itself as a superior player in the future. Therefore, it has coordinated its foreign policy based on de-escalation and obtaining economic aid and benefits.


Farzad Ramezani Bonesh

Senior Researcher and Analyst of International Affairs